Data sgp is an indicator used by schools to measure and track academic progress of students, especially those who enter school at a different level than their peers. It is also a popular method for teachers to evaluate the performance of their students. Data sgp is often a key component of educator evaluation systems and has been shown to improve student outcomes and teacher effectiveness.
SGPs are calculated by ranking students against others with similar prior achievement and then comparing the differences in their current assessment score to this benchmark. The goal is to provide a more realistic and meaningful measurement of student growth than purely looking at unadjusted test scores. These benefits have led to the widespread use of SGPs in education.
In practice, multiple years of prior achievement are used in SGP models. The first column in sgpData, ID, provides the unique student identifier for each year of testing. The next 5 columns, SS_2013, SS_2014, SS_2015, SS_2016 and SS_2017, provide the scale scores associated with each student in these years of testing. The last column, SS_2018, provides the current grade level for each student.
The sgpData_LONG data set contains 8 windows (3 windows annually) of student assessment data in LONG format for 3 content areas (Early Literacy, Mathematics and Reading). There are 7 required variables in this data set: VALID_CASE, CONTENT_AREA, YEAR, ID, SCALE_SCORE, GRADE and ACHIEVEMENT_LEVEL. These are all demographic/student categorization variables used by the summarizeSGP function to generate student aggregates.
Using wide-format data like sgpData with the SGP package is generally straightforward. For more detailed documentation, please consult the SGP data analysis vignette.
SGPs are not only useful for evaluating student and teacher performance but are also increasingly being used in educator accountability systems. Specifically, states are implementing new educator evaluation systems that incorporate SGPs along with traditional measures of performance to more accurately identify educators who need improvement or support. SGPs are also being used to guide policy decisions related to educator preparation programs and professional development for educators. These new systems are designed to improve instructional practices and support educators in meeting the needs of their students. As these new systems are implemented, it is important to understand the strengths and limitations of SGPs. This article highlights a few issues that will help to inform decision makers in using SGPs. These include understanding how SGPs are estimated, the role of teacher practice in SGP estimates and the implications of SGPs for teacher evaluation and equity. Lastly, the article provides a series of recommendations for educators and policy makers in using SGPs to make informed decisions about professional learning.